E07800 - SEMI E78 - Guide to Assess and Control Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) and Electrostatic Attraction (ESA) for Equipment

Volume(s): Equipment Automation Hardware
Language: English
Type: Single Standards Download (.pdf)

The purpose of this Guide is to minimize the negative impact on productivity caused by static charge and electric fields in semiconductor manufacturing equipment. It is a guide for establishing electrostatic compatibility of equipment used in semiconductor manufacturing. Electrostatic compatibility in the entire semiconductor factory is addressed in SEMI E129.


Electrostatic surface charge causes a number of undesirable effects in semiconductor manufacturing environments.

  • Electrostatic discharge (ESD) damages both products and reticles. ESD events also cause electromagnetic interference (EMI), resulting in equipment malfunctions.
  • Charged wafer and reticle surfaces attract particles (electrostatic attraction [ESA]) and increase the defect rate. Charge on products can also result in equipment malfunction or product breakage.
  • Operating problems and additional product defects due to static charge can have a negative impact on the cost of ownership (COO) of semiconductor manufacturing equipment (refer to SEMI E35).


This Standard can be used as a guide for equipment manufacturers during the design and testing of their equipment. The test methods described can also be used by semiconductor manufacturers to check the performance of equipment and to verify its conformance with procurement specifications.


Semiconductor process technology continues to move toward smaller product geometries. Acceptable static charge levels continue to decrease with product feature size. This Guide provides recommendations for equipment static charge limits that are appropriate for the product being manufactured, referencing the feature sizes contained in the International Roadmap for Devices and Systems (IRDS).

The scope of this Guide is limited to providing recommended methods of measurement and guidance for the maximum recommended level of static charge on:

  • Product or reticles,
  • Carriers, and
  • Parts of the input/exit ports of equipment and minienvironments.

This Guide presents a table of maximum recommended levels of static charge on products, reticles, carriers, and the input and exit ports of production equipment or minienvironments. The purpose is to:

  • Reduce product, reticle, and equipment damage due to ESD;
  • Reduce equipment lock-up problems due to ESD events; and
  • Reduce the attraction of particles to charged surfaces.


This Guide references SEMI E43 and other methods of measuring static charge.


Referenced SEMI Standards (purchase separately)

SEMI E33 — Guide for Semiconductor Manufacturing Equipment Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)

SEMI E35 — Guide to Calculate Cost of Ownership (COO) Metrics for Semiconductor Manufacturing Equipment

SEMI E43 — Guide for Electrostatic Measurements on Objects and Surfaces

SEMI E129 — Guide to Assess and Control Electrostatic Charge in a Semiconductor Manufacturing Facility

SEMI E163 — Guide for the Handling of Reticles and Other Extremely Electrostatic Sensitive (EES) Items Within Specially Designated Areas


Revision History

SEMI E78-0222 (technical revision)

SEMI E78-0912 (technical revision)

SEMI E78-0309 (technical revision)

SEMI E78-0708 (technical revision)

SEMI E78-0706 (technical revision)

SEMI E78-1105 (complete rewrite)

SEMI E78-1102 (technical revision)

SEMI E78-0998 (first published)

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