SEMI E78 - Guide to Assess and Control Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) and Electrostatic Attraction (ESA) for Equipment

Volume(s): Equipment Automation Hardware
Language: English
Type: Single Standards Download (.pdf)

This Standard was technically approved by the global Metrics Technical Committee. This edition was approved for publication by the global Audits and Reviews Subcommittee on August 30, 2012. Available at and in September 2012; originally published September 1998; previously published March 2009.


The purpose of this Document is to minimize the negative impact on productivity caused by static charge and electric fields in semiconductor manufacturing equipment. It is a guide for establishing electrostatic compatibility of equipment used in semiconductor manufacturing. Electrostatic compatibility in the entire semiconductor factory is addressed in SEMI E129.


Electrostatic surface charge causes a number of undesirable effects in semiconductor manufacturing environments. Electrostatic discharge (ESD) damages both products and reticles. ESD events also cause electromagnetic interference (EMI), resulting in equipment malfunctions. Charged wafer and reticle surfaces attract particles (electrostatic attraction or ESA) and increase the defect rate. Charge on products can also result in equipment malfunction or product breakage. Operating problems and additional product defects due to static charge can have a negative impact on the cost of ownership (COO) of semiconductor manufacturing equipment (refer to SEMI E35).


This Document can be used as a guide for equipment manufacturers during the design and testing of their equipment. The test methods described can also be used by semiconductor manufacturers to check the performance of equipment and to verify its conformance with procurement specifications.


Semiconductor process technology will continue to move toward smaller product geometries. Acceptable static charge levels will decrease with product feature size. This Document provides recommendations for equipment static charge limits that are appropriate for the product being manufactured, referencing the feature sizes contained in the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS).


Referenced SEMI Standards

SEMI E33 — Specification for Semiconductor Manufacturing Facility Electromagnetic Compatibility
SEMI E35 — Guide to Calculate Cost of Ownership (COO) Metrics for Semiconductor Manufacturing Equipment
SEMI E43 — Guide for Measuring Static Charge on Objects and Surfaces
SEMI E129 — Guide to Assess and Control Electrostatic Charge in a Semiconductor Manufacturing Facility
SEMI E163 — Guide for the Handling of Reticles and Other Extremely Electrostatic Sensitive (EES) Items Within Specially Designated Areas

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