- SEMI MF1527 - Guide for Application of Certified Reference Materials and Reference Wafers for Calibration and Control of Instruments for Measuring Resistivity of Silicon
This Standard was technically approved by the Silicon Wafer Global Technical Committee. This edition was approved for publication by the global Audits and Reviews Subcommittee on August 17, 2018. Available at www.semiviews.org and www.semi.org in October 2018; originally published by ASTM International as ASTM F1527-94; previously published April 2012.
Resistivity is a widely used parameter for specification and characterization of silicon wafers for use in fabricating semiconductor devices and integrated circuits. Many types of instrumentation used for making resistivity measurements including the noncontact eddy-current instruments used for measurements made in accordance with SEMI MF673 require calibration because they are relative measurements. Although measurements made with in-line four-point probes in accordance with SEMI MF84 are, in principle, absolute, control charts should be maintained for four-point probes because one cannot always be sure that the electrical resistivity of the test specimen is sufficiently homogeneous for the theoretical model of the method to apply, that the electrical thickness of the wafer is exactly equal to its measured mechanical thickness, or that the stability of the instrument is adequate.
Instruments for measuring such related parameters as spreading resistance (used in accordance with SEMI MF525 or SEMI MF672), net carrier density (used in accordance with SEMI MF1392), and sheet resistance (used in accordance with SEMI MF1529) also require calibration.
For all these purposes, wafers of known resistivity are required. Such wafers are supplied by several sources with a wide range of certified or calibrated resistivity values. Although these wafers are often used directly, the resistivity values represented by purchased standards can also be transferred to an in-house resistivity reference wafer that is then used for routine instrument calibration or control.
The accuracy with which this transfer can be affected depends not only on the procedures for using such reference wafers but also on the procedures for material selection, instrument qualification, and calibration of the reference wafer. This Guide provides recommendations for procedures for these operations appropriate to obtaining the best available accuracy in use of resistivity reference wafers.
These procedures are specifically intended for use in measuring the resistivity of silicon wafers. Extension to resistivity measurements on other semiconductor materials or to resistivity values outside the range covered by the resistivity reference wafers has not been demonstrated.
Referenced SEMI Standards
SEMI C28 — Specification and Guide for Hydrofluoric Acid
SEMI C35 — Specification and Guide for Nitric Acid
SEMI C39 — Specification for Potassium Hydroxide Pellets
SEMI M1 — Specification for Polished Single Crystal Silicon Wafers
SEMI M59 — Terminology for Silicon Technology
SEMI MF43 — Test Method for Resistivity of Semiconductor Materials
SEMI MF81 — Test Method for Measuring Radial Resistivity Variation on Silicon Wafers
SEMI MF84 — Test Method for Measuring Resistivity of Silicon Wafers with an In-Line Four-Point Probe
SEMI MF525 — Test Method for Measuring Resistivity of Silicon Wafers Using a Spreading Resistance Probe
SEMI MF533 — Test Method for Thickness and Thickness Variation of Silicon Slices
SEMI MF672 — Test Method for Measuring Resistivity Profile Perpendicular to the Surface of a Silicon Wafer Using a Spreading Resistance Probe
SEMI MF673 — Test Method for Measuring Resistivity of Semiconductor Slices or Sheet Resistance of Semiconductor Films with a Non-Contact Eddy-current Gage
SEMI MF723 — Practice for Conversion Between Resistivity and Dopant Density for Boron-doped, Phosphorus-doped, and Arsenic-doped Silicon
SEMI MF1392 — Test Method for Determining Net Carrier Density Profiles in Silicon Wafers by Capacitance-voltage Measurements with a Mercury Probe
SEMI MF1529 — Test Method for Sheet Resistance Uniformity Evaluation by in-line Four-point Probe with the Dual-configuration Procedure
SEMI MF1530 — Test Method for Measuring Flatness, Thickness, and Thickness Variation on Silicon Wafers by Automated Non-Contact Scanning
SEMI MF1618 — Practice for Determining Uniformity of Thin Films on Silicon Wafers
SEMI MF2074 — Guide for Measuring Diameter of Silicon and Other Semiconductor Wafers