SEMI PV22 - Specification for Silicon Wafers for Use in Photovoltaic Solar Cells
This Standard was technically approved by the Photovoltaic – Materials Global Technical Committee. This edition was approved for publication by the global Audits and Reviews Subcommittee on May 16, 2017. Available at www.semiviews.org and www.semi.org in August 2017; originally published October 2011; previously published July 2016.
This Specification covers the requirements for silicon wafers for use in photovoltaic (PV) solar cell manufacture. To permit common processing equipment to be used in multiple fabrication lines, it is essential for the wafer dimensions to be standardized.
This Specification provides standardized dimensional and certain other common characteristics of silicon wafers based on currently widely used sizes for photovoltaic applications.
This Specification also provides a tabular specification format for order entry so that relevant non-standardized wafer characteristics and extensions of wafer sizes for research, development, and new requirements can be easily and consistently specified in commercial transactions.
This Specification covers ordering information and certain requirements for single crystal silicon wafer and cast silicon wafer for PV applications.
This Specification allows growth methods that include Czochralski (Cz) method, Floating Zone (FZ) method for single crystal silicon wafers, and casting method with and without seed for cast silicon wafer.
The specified cast silicon wafer includes cast silicon category I wafer and cast silicon category II wafer.
A complete purchase specification requires that various physical properties be specified along with test methods suitable for determining their magnitude. The specification format in this Standard provides a comprehensive listing of such properties and available associated test methods (see Appendix 1).
Referenced SEMI Standards
SEMI M35 — Guide for Developing Specifications for Silicon Wafer Surface Features Detected by Automated Inspection
SEMI M44 — Guide to Conversion Factors for Interstitial Oxygen in Silicon
SEMI M53 — Practice for Calibrating Scanning Surface Inspection Systems Using Depositions of Monodisperse Polystyrene Latex Sphere on Unpatterned Semiconductor Wafer Surfaces
SEMI M58 — Test Method for Evaluating DMA-Based Particle Deposition Systems and Processes
SEMI M59 — Terminology for Silicon Technology
SEMI MF26 — Test Method for Determining the Orientation of a Semiconductive Single Crystal
SEMI MF42 — Test Method for Conductivity Type of Extrinsic Semiconducting Materials
SEMI MF84 — Test Method for Measuring Resistivity of Silicon Wafers with an In-Line Four-Point Probe
SEMI MF523 — Practice for Unaided Visual Inspection of Polished Silicon Wafer Surfaces
SEMI MF391 — Test Methods for Minority Carrier Diffusion Length in Extrinsic Semiconductors by Measurement of Steady-State Surface Photovoltage
SEMI MF533 — Test Method for Thickness and Thickness of Variation of Silicon Wafers
SEMI MF657 — Test Method for Measuring Warp and Total Thickness Variation on Silicon Wafers by Noncontact Scanning
SEMI MF673 — Test Method for Measuring Resistivity of Semiconductor Wafers or Sheet Resistance of Semiconductor Films with a Noncontact Eddy-Current Gage
SEMI MF847 — Test Method for Measuring Crystallographic Orientation of Flats on Single Crystal Silicon Wafers by X-Ray Techniques
SEMI MF978 — Test Method for Characterizing Semiconductor Deep Levels by Transient Capacitance Techniques
SEMI MF1188 — Test Method for Interstitial Oxygen Content of Silicon by Infrared Absorption with Short Baseline
SEMI MF1390 — Test Method for Measuring Bow and Warp on Silicon Wafers by Automated Noncontact Scanning
SEMI MF1391 — Test Method for Substitutional Atomic Carbon Content of Silicon by Infrared Absorption
SEMI MF1617 — Test Method for Measuring Surface Sodium, Aluminum, Potassium, and Iron on Silicon and Epi Substrates by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry
SEMI MF1810 — Test Method for Counting Preferentially Etched or Decorated Surface Defects in Silicon Wafers
SEMI MF1982 — Test Methods for Analyzing Organic Contaminants on Silicon Wafer Surfaces by Thermal Desorption Gas Chromatography
SEMI PV1 — Test Method for Measuring Trace Elements in Silicon Feedstock for Silicon Solar Cells by High-Mass Resolution Glow Discharge Mass Spectrometry
SEMI PV9 — Test Method for Excess Charge Carrier Decay in PV Silicon Materials by Non-Contact Measurements of Microwave Reflectance After a Short Illumination Pulse
SEMI PV13 — Test Method for Contactless Excess-Charge-Carrier Recombination Lifetime Measurement in Silicon Wafers, Ingots, and Bricks Using an Eddy-Current Sensor
SEMI PV25 — Test Method for Simultaneously Measuring Oxygen, carbon, Boron and Phosphorus in Solar Silicon Wafers and Feedstock by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry
SEMI PV28 — Test Method for Measuring Resistivity or Sheet Resistance with a Single-Sided Noncontact Eddy-Current Gauge
SEMI PV39 — Test Method for In-Line Measurement of Cracks in PV Silicon Wafers by Dark Field Infrared Imaging
SEMI PV40 — Test Method for In-Line Measurement of Saw Marks on PV Silicon Wafers by a Light Sectioning Technique Using Multiple Line Segments
SEMI PV41 — Test Method for In-Line, Noncontact Measurement of Thickness and Thickness Variation of Silicon Wafers for PV Applications Using Capacitive Probes
SEMI PV52 — Test Method for In-Line Characterization of Photovoltaic Silicon Wafers Regarding Grain Size